From Mac to Linux

In 2005 I made the switch from Windows to Mac as my primary working environment. In 2018 I made a similar switch to Linux. In both cases, the change was somewhat gradual, and the process was the same. In 2005 purchased the newly released Mac Mini and set it up on my desk to the side. Over a few weeks I got comfortable with MacOS, and eventually, my Windows computer was moved to the side. The same happened at the end of 2017. I purchased a Meerkat from System76, which has a similar physical profile as the 2005 Mac Mini. It too sat to my side as I became familiar with the Linux desktop experience. Linux is now my primary os.

Why switch? For me, it was practical reasons.

Knowledge. 80% of my computer time is spent doing web development on a LAMP stack (Linux, Apache, MySQL, and Apache). Linux is at the core of my local development environment, as well as, the server environments my websites run on. Like most Drupal developers, I’m doing more DevOps, all of which is based on Linux software. The primary reason for my switch was to spend more time in the Linux environment to improve my Linux knowledge and skills.

Hardware choices. While I’m an Apple fan and will continue to use a Mac and iOS devices, they frustrate me. My daughter still uses her 2010 MacBook Pro, that’s possible because I could upgrade the RAM and change the hard drive. The hard drive has been replaced twice, first an upgrade to a 250 GB hard drive, then a 500GB SSD. I believe that was the last Mac Book you could upgrade. Moving to Linux gives me unlimited choices in hardware. Desktops and laptops configured how I choose and they can be updated and modified as I need them to.

It’s Possible. Linux distributions and open source software has matured to the point that it’s possible for me to use Linux exclusively. I’m currently using the Pop_OS Linux distribution. From a user interface perspective, it’s as elegant and powerful as Mac OS. While it lacks the level of integration of the Mac, it’s refreshing to have less integration. It feels lighter and less bloated. What about MS Office? Libre Office is a fitting replacement. I discontinued my Office 360 subscription. I’m finding that Linux could also use the tagline “there’s an app for that.”

Performance. Linux on current hardware is fast.

I don’t believe I’ll switch back to Mac, but who knows!

Static Websites with Sculpin

his blog, on 8/14/18, is static HTML generated by Sculpin, a static site generator written in PHP. Sculpin converts Markdown files, Twig templates and standard HTML into a static HTML site that can be easily deployed.

What is a Drupal guy doing with a static HTML website? Truthfully, just tinkering with technology. I like the idea of simplifying and minimizing. For simple blog, is it necessary to have a sophisticated content management system using a database and generating a website dynamically? That’s the question I’m exploring with Sculpin.

Why Scuplin? There are many frameworks available for generating an HTML website, the most popular is Jekyll, like Sculip, it’s open source, but built on Ruby and Liquid. Sculpin is a built on PHP and Twig, which pairs nicely with my Drupal experience. It was an easy decision to start with Sculpin. I may take a look at other Ruby and Python options in the future.

I’m not a Sculpin expert, but I’m learning. I downloaded the sample blog implementation to use as a working reference. Following the Sculpin Getting Started instructions, I quickly had the sample website running on my local computer. After looking through the sample website code and documentation I started a new website. I used a simple bootstrap theme, converted it to TWIG and had my blog running in a few evenings.

Sculpin Basics


Content resides in a markdown files (.md). In my blog implementation, the content is either a blog post or simple page. In Drupal terms, this content is known as an Article or Basic Page. To create a new blog post, I simply create a new markdown file with some meta data at the top of the file. The example below is a blog post with meta data.

title: At home on July 4th
author: Stephen Cross
    - Life
primary_image: /images/blog/home_primary.jpg
primary_image_alt: Mantle with patriotic HOME sign
list_image: /images/blog/home_list.jpg
list_image_alt: Mantle with patriotic HOME sign

It's July 1st.  In most parts of the US, that means three days until a day off to celebrate the nations birthday.  In Bristol RI it has a very different meaning.  The 4th of July is a significant event, it's THE event.   Planning for July 4th, starts on July 5th the previous year.   The celebration begins in June and climaxes with the oldest parade in the country.   


We are days away from our second 4th hosting.   It's exciting to have family and friend join us for this purely American, hometown celebration.  

Happy 4th.


Sculpin uses Twig for a templating engine. Twig is straight forward and there is an abundance of references on-line.


When your templates are setup, and you have some content, you then generate the website. Scuplin use the markdown and templates to output a stand alone HTML website.

vendor/bin/sculpin generate

Sculpin also provides a web service to view your website locally as you work on it. The command below kicks off the service, which monitors your source code and automatically refreshes the HTML as you update markdown and templates. I can view the website at http://localhost:8001.

vendor/bin/sculpin generate --watch --server --port=8001

Detected new or updated files

Generating: 100% (221 sources / 0.00 seconds)
Converting: 100% (232 sources / 0.08 seconds)
Formatting: 100% (232 sources / 0.01 seconds)
Processing completed in 0.13 seconds
Starting Sculpin server for the dev environment with debug true
Development server is running at http://localhost:8001
Quit the server with CONTROL-C.


When development is complete, you generate HTML to a new folder, /output_prod:

vendor/bin/sculpin generate --env=prod

You can then push the HTML to the webserver with an scp or rsync.

rsync -avze ssh  output_prod/ --delete


After the website is built, the daily workflow is:

  1. Create new post in a markdown file, ie. _post/
  2. Generate HTML
  3. Push HTML to Server

For me, these are manual steps, but I plan to change this workflow to use a continuous deployment strategy. As I push updates to my git repo, the HTML will be automatically generated and pushed to the server.


Although I’ve recently started using Sculpin and my knowledge is limited, I see the benefits as:

  • Performnace – HTML websites are super fast.
  • Low powered production server – The website can run on almost anything. The only runtime requirement is a web server. It have running on the smaller Digital Ocean VPS with only apache install. I look forward to trying a Rasberry PI.
  • Low maintenance – I don’t have to worry about frequent stack updates.
  • Backup – While I’m backuping up the server weekly, it’s not necessary. The content and tools are on my local computer and in a git repo.

Cons I haven’t found many drawback yet. I do find the documentation sparse with few online examples and resources.

Next Steps

I see the next steps as:

  • Implement a CI process
  • Implement a search mechanism
  • Add sidebar to view by category

Check back for updates!



8/16/18 – Added SSL. It’s pretty straight forward to add SSL following this community post on Digital Ocean for Let’s Encrypt.

8/17/18 – Added Disqus for commenting. Sculpin provides this capability.

11/28/19 – Time for a changed, still like sculpin, but going to checkout WordPress.

At home on July 4th

It’s July 1st. In most parts of the US, that means three days until a day off to celebrate the nations birthday. In Bristol RI it has a very different meaning. The 4th of July is a significant event, it’s THE event. Planning for July 4th, starts on July 5th the previous year. The celebration begins in June and climaxes with the oldest parade in the country.

I grew up in Bristol RI. I marched in the parade as a member of the Bristol Highschool drumline. Growing up in Bristol is like growing up as an elf in the North Pole. You know it’s special, but it gets old, and you want to get out, to be a dentist. I moved out of Bristol in my early 20s. Over the next 15 years, I didn’t regularly return for the 4th. As my girls became teenagers, they had friends that lived in Bristol and we started returning for the parade, then fireworks on July 3 AND the parade of July 4th. For the past 10 years we found ourselves in Bristol on or around the 4th of July. The charm of this small town, with a proud identity, began to look like home.

There is a “what if” conversation you have with your spouse; “If we could move anywhere, where would it be?”. For Erica and I, Bristol was always on the short list. A very short list it was. In 2016 we found ourselves with an opportunity to relocate to Bristol. We celebrated our first July 4th with family and friends in 2017.

We are days away from our second 4th hosting. It’s exciting to have family and friend join us for this purely American, hometown celebration.

Happy 4th.

When Software Lifts Hardware – Outcast on Apple Watch

Over the past year, I’ve prioritized exercise in my life, most days spending an hour outside or at the gym. I take advantage of that time to listen to podcasts and audiobooks. It took two devices to make this work for me, a health tracker (Fitbit) and phone (iPhone).

While I had wanted an Apple Watch since it’s introduction, having the ability to leave your phone behind made the Series 3, released in October 2017, a compelling product. I upgraded my Fitbit to an Apple Watch, Series 3 Cellular, shortly after its release.

My dreams of untethering from my iPhone during my 3.5-mile walk vanished quickly. While the Series 3 Cellar Apple Watch works well without my phone, it doesn’t support podcast playback from Apple’s Podcast app, and Apple has not made it easy for developers to create podcast apps. In fact, the podcast app I use, Overcast, removed their support for Apple Watch with the release of watchOS 4. Also, there is no Audible playback on the Apple Watch.

I was happy with my move from Fitbit to Apple Watch, but I was still talking my phone with me, which is frustrating when I have a capable computer on my wrist. I tried a few apps claiming to support podcast playback on the Apple Watch, but they were too hard to use and very unreliable.

Then along came Outcast! While not perfect, the folks at Crunchy Bagel battled through Apple’s developer limitations and created an app that works. While Outcast allows you to search and enter podcast feeds to the app manually, I was able to import my existing podcast list from my podcast App Overcast. In a few minutes, I was running the bike path, listening to the Vector with Rene Richie podcast while my iPhone was on the charger at home.

A $.99 app lifted the value of my Apple Watch, to me.

I now wait for Apple to provide the watchOS features developers need to create a quality experience. Hey Audible, what up?